Way back in September 2021, GitHub added support for footnotes, an intuitive way to add footnotes or references to a page. The “Kramdown” parser on Jekyll has also supported footnotes for a decade. But… what are they actually capable of?

Jekyll’s Kramdown parser has excellent documentation for the permitted uses. My experimentation suggests that this documentation is 100% accurate. GitHub’s documentation is much simpler, but also describes the essentials accurately.

Intro to footnotes

Footnotes in markdown are an extremely useful yet niche functionality that almost nobody actually uses. Whilst they are usually used to provide additional non-essential information1, in a more academic context they can be used to cite sources. For example, on my Internet History blog I always provide links to source material, causing articles to easily have 20+ sources. Any non-automated solution would be painful to maintain, so Markdown footnotes are a lifesaver.

To use a footnote, you need two components:

  1. The marker: This looks [^like-this], and is placed within the main text where the footnote should be linked from. This will be converted into a small auto-numbered link looking similar to: [1].
  2. The definition: This looks [^like-this]: Abc def, and can be placed anywhere within the document. It defines the contents of the footnote, and automatically links back to any parts of the text that reference it.

All of a page’s footnotes are merged together & numbered automatically during the publishing process. For more complex posts, I usually use named footnotes, and place the definitions at the end of the section containing the marker.

If you’d like a more detailed & step-by-step explanation of the basics of footnotes in Markdown, Linux Hint has an excellent guide.

Footnote functionality

So, footnotes are easy to use, and improve Markdown articles. What are their limits?

URL additions

The footnote marker and definition both work by adding an identifier to the URL when clicked.

On Jekyll these are #fn:[footnote] for the marker, and #fnref:[footnote] for the definition.

On GitHub these are #user-content-fn-[footnote]-[id] for the marker, and #user-content-fnref-[footnote]-[id] for the definition. This ID appears to be randomly generated for each footnote.

Supported characters

Whilst many online examples use basic numerical footnotes (e.g. [^1]), text footnotes (e.g. [^example]) also work! What else is allowed as part of a footnote identifier?

Characters Example Supported on GitHub Supported on Jekyll
Alphanumeric [^abc] All letters & numbers All letters and numbers
Long text [^abcabc] Up to 1000 characters Above 16,000 characters, no limit found
Punctuation [^!"£$%^&*()_+-=] All are valid Only -, and only after an alphanumeric character
Meta punctuation [^\[] Escaped [ is OK, but escaped ] or : are not None are permitted
Spaces [^ ] Non-breaking spaces can go at start / middle / end (or be the only content), regular spaces cannot go anywhere None are permitted
Non-latin characters [^Приветこんにちはأهلا] Russian, Japanese, and Arabic all work No non-latin characters work, even é

Supported contents

Okay, so now we know what can go in a footnote identifier, but what can go into the footnote itself?

It turns out… pretty much anything works, so long as it is after the footnote definition and preceded by 4 spaces!

Jekyll requires some types of content to have an empty line before they will render correctly, but ultimately seems to support all functionality.

Test Supported on GitHub Supported on Jekyll
Multiline Yes Yes
Table Yes Yes
List Yes Yes
Quote Yes Yes
Code block Yes Yes


Admittedly this section is me intentionally trying to “trick” the footnote generator, but here we go! Footnotes can reference footnotes (e.g. [^example]: some text[^example2]) and function correctly. They can even reference themselves, although GitHub (left) and Jekyll (right) treat this edge case slightly differently:

Footnotes can also be defined before or after they are used.


Whilst writing this post I discovered a feature I wish I’d known months ago, especially whilst writing my reference-heavy internet history posts. Markdown supports URL auto-linking, to do this just add < and > around a URL. This will turn https://example.com into https://example.com.

This autolinking syntax is only required for Jekyll, as GitHub automatically makes all links clickable by default.


Ultimately, I didn’t discover anything particularly shocking about footnotes, except that GitHub is way more lenient with the identifiers than Jekyll! That being said, the discovery of autolinking is a good example of why reading the documentation is often helpful, even if it doesn’t solve the immediate problem.

Perhaps there’s no greater indicator of how underutilised footnotes are than a Google search for “jekyll footnotes” returning… 114 results. “footnotes in jekyll” similarly returns just 10. Most of these results are for now unnecessary third party plugins2, or simplistic / broken guides3, but at least “markdown footnotes” returns 2.5k results!


  1. Non-essential information such as the fact that Grammarly describes footnotes as

    Footnotes are small notations at the bottom of a page that provide additional information or cite the source of a passage in the page’s text. 4

  2. https://github.com/orangejulius/jekyll-footnotes 

  3. https://www.kylealwyn.com/blog/how-to-add-footnotes-markdown 

  4. https://www.grammarly.com/blog/footnotes/